If you are covering a current topic or need to have a day-by-day account of events and cannot find one elsewhere, you may be forced to turn to newsmagazines and newspapers. Be sure, however, to check with your instructor to ensure that these are considered acceptable sources for your assignment. Mostly they are useful for facts or for contemporary quotes and are usually not good sources of analysis. Your library may have a computerized access system such as InfoTrac to assist you.
Some are now available on CD-ROM, allowing you to use the computer to search by subject and then print out the relevant stories.
See the reference librarians for help with such resources. Over the past few years it has become increasingly easy to find research information by using the Internet. Until recently the Gopher system of data archives was the dominant form of Internet information access, but now most governmental and nongovernmental organizations, universities, and even many businesses have developed access to their research resources over the graphic environment on the World Wide Web.
The following are a number of Web sites that will get you started in searching for information you may need in writing your research paper.
Although some of the Uniform Resource Locators URL listed below are for specific information sources, most provide you with "hot-linked" lists that will get you to where you might want to look for information. It is important to note that URLs change frequently. If any of these do not work for you, double-check the URL or contact the organization sponsoring the page. Our listing here can only begin to cover what is in your library.
There may be a map room. There may also be an audio-visual section. Some libraries contain archives or a rare book collection. Talk to a librarian or your professor for added information. Also realize that no library has everything. Consequently, you may find references to sources that are not found in your library. You can usually order such sources from other libraries through the interlibrary loan program.
Check with your reference librarians to learn how to use this service. Be advised, however, that interlibrary loans take some time. So order any needed sources as early as possible. Knowledge is not confined to libraries or even campuses. A surprising number of students know someone who knows something about the specifics of some U.
Even if you do not know someone personally, you might find it interesting and possible to conduct an interview with a decision maker or some other relevant person.
Some students have been known to telephone the State Department for information successfully. Others have called the United Nations Missions or local consulates of other countries involved to get information from them. For advice on unconventional sources, see your instructor.
The keys to effective papers are good organization and presentation of ideas and error-free technical skills.
There are a number of sources that you can access to help you both organize and write your paper. Our comments on writing a paper that follow may prove helpful to you, but they are not substitutes for the fuller discussions you will find in these writing guides.
There are three organizational issues to consider. They are the outline, the parts of the paper, and the approach. No one would think of building a house, computer, or other important and complex project without a plan. Students regularly write papers without a plan. As a result, poor organization is a common weakness of undergraduate term papers.
The best way to construct your plan and to organize information for maximum effect is to put together an outline. Determine what you wish to accomplish in the paper; then prepare an outline specifying every step from Introduction to Conclusion.
Linear writing is crucial in professional papers and reports. A good outline also serves to help you later: It ensures that you stay on track, write an accurate summary for your conclusions, and cover all of the relevant information and arguments. All papers should have three basic parts: The introduction is the key to letting your reader know where you are headed and what you will accomplish. Remember always that while the organization of your paper may be clear to you, it is not clear to your reader.
Therefore, the introduction is something like a road map that acquaints the reader with the journey ahead. Tell the reader in concise terms 1 what the subject of the paper is, 2 what it is that you hope to find out, and 3 how you will go about it.
If you are writing an advanced, theoretical paper, your introduction might well also include a review of the existing scholarship on the subject, a section in which you identify how you collected your data and other information, and a discussion of the methodology you will use.
Wolfinger is a guide for such advanced papers. The main body is the largest part of the paper. It should have a logical organization. Especially if the paper is long, it is often a good idea to divide the main body into sections designated by headings and subheadings. Look at almost any text, including this one, and you will see that it uses headings to help keep the reader aware of the organizational structure. Also with regard to your main body, do not assume knowledge on the part of the reader.
Include all important information, explain its significance, and detail your logic. Write your paper as though its reader will be a reasonably intelligent and informed person but not an expert on your topic. Your instructor wants to know what you know and will not "read into" the paper information that is not there. The conclusion should sum up what you have found and stress the evidence that supports your analysis.
There is something very human about wanting to have things summed up, so do not leave your reader hanging without a conclusion. There are several ways to approach your paper.
A common organizational approach is a chronological one. The advantage of this approach is that it uses the passage of time as its organizing mechanism. The disadvantage of a chronological approach is that it can easily become a "laundry list" of events, both important and unimportant. Students often list everything they find, leaving it to the reader to determine which factors are most important.
Chronologies are also no substitute for analysis. There is nothing wrong with a chronological approach if it is done well; just be sure to put more emphasis throughout on why things happened than on what happened.
A more analytic approach would be organized around a set of factors, or variables, that are important to the subject of the paper. Theoretical approaches can also be used to organize a paper. Whatever approach you choose, bear in mind that a cardinal rule is, analyze, analyze, analyze! Summarizing your findings in the conclusion does not mean that this is the only place to put "you" in the paper.
Your analysis should appear throughout the paper. A big error that many novice writers make is to use the main body of the paper to create a heap of facts and to wait until the conclusion to say what they mean.
This approach is boring and will not impress your readers with your analytical ability. The best papers by far are those that draw data, events, and other material together and interpret them throughout. Besides organization, the other hallmark of a good paper is clarity in writing. Remember that if a paper fails to communicate well, then its research-no matter how well done--will have little impact.
There is an old piece of advice that says, "write like you speak. Good written communication is somewhat different from good spoken communication. When you speak to someone, especially face to face, you can convey meaning through voice inflection, gestures, and other methods in addition to your words. These methods are not available in written communications. Therefore, choice of words, punctuation, and other considerations are particularly vital when you write.
Good writing can be divided into three parts: Thomas Alva Edison once supposedly commented that "Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. Writing and polishing drafts of a paper take time and effort.
They cannot be done the night before the paper is due. If you sit down at your word processor the night before your report is due and write it into the wee hours of the morning, you will almost certainly leave your reader as bleary-eyed when he or she reads the paper as you were when you wrote it. Two things to do are to write drafts and to get others to read your paper. Write a draft, preferably more than one.
No professional writer would dream of sending a manuscript out for review or to press without writing multiple drafts. Indeed, the more one writes, the more one feels the need to do drafts. Only undergraduates have the hubris to keyboard a paper into the computer, print a copy out, hand it in, and wait confidently for that rave review and an "A" grade from the instructor.
A better idea is to write a first draft. Note here that the adjective "rough" does not precede "draft. Once your smooth draft is done, put it aside for a few days so that you can gain perspective. You may be surprised at how many ways you find to improve what you have written when you look at it with "fresh eyes. There are many people who can help you write a first-rate paper.
One person is your instructor. Discuss your topic and your ideas with your professor. Submit drafts to your professor far enough ahead of the deadline to give the instructor time to suggest revisions. It may prove helpful also to ask a classmate, a family member, or someone else to read your paper.
Most people are not good judges of their own writing. We tend to read what we meant to say, not what we actually wrote. A fresh reader will be able to point out technical errors and lapses in your argument and organization. Writing centers are another source of help at many colleges and universities. You may have already paid for such assistance with your tuition dollars; you might as well use it.
It may take innate talent to become a great literary figure, but achieving a reasonably pleasing literary style is possible for everyone who exercises a little care. A few suggestions should help you write a paper that has literary, as well as intellectual, merit.
Watch your sentence structure. Students and scholars too often seem to assume that long, complex sentences are symbolic of profundity. They are not; they are mostly just cumbersome.
Simple, subject-verb-object sentences are best. Still, if you do not vary them occasionally, numerous short sentences do not "read" well. So, after several simple sentences, add a longer one. But do not go too far the other way. Rely on active tense, action verbs.
Avoid the passive tense No: Similarly, action verbs made, jumped, went are better than verbs of being is, are, were. Colloquial English typically does not make a good impression unless you are writing fiction. Obscenities and other forms of gutter English are almost never acceptable. Avoid starting too many sentences with adverbial or adjectival clauses or phrases. These are the short phrases such as "In the morning, we went Also shun beginning or ending sentences with words or phrases such as: Watch your paragraph length.
Paragraphs over one page in length are usually too long. They may contain redundant statements or more than one major idea. Rework such paragraphs to delete unnecessary text or to separate ideas into additional paragraphs. At the other extreme, one-sentence paragraphs are not acceptable. Remember that each paragraph should have a topic sentence and several others that explain or develop that topic.
Rely on transitions between paragraphs. Conventions like "On the other hand," "Still," "Also," "Nevertheless," "Thus," "However," or "As a result" help the reader get from one thought to another.
It requires planning, time management and excellent writing skills. With the right preparation, your essay will land you excellent marks. Get your hands on a term paper pdf or example of term paper for college before you have to write your own.
Seeing an example is a great way to ensure you know exactly what the reviewers are looking for. The very first thing you need to do is select a topic for your paper.
Papers that stand out will be more appreciated and tend to rate higher scores. Look for research material that is a little more obscure and skip the obvious slants to work on a more interesting angle. All your research should come from primary resources so you can create a credible bibliography at the end of the essay. The very basic bones can be laid out early on, then you will fill in the details with research. Without an outline, you run the risk of writing a poor term paper overall.
You cite your sources at the end of your report on a separate page. How you format your citations will depend on what style you are using: For more information, read: How to Write a Works Cited Page. Your professor should have a minimum and maximum word count or page count minus cover page and bibliography in the rubric or assignment description.
Not Helpful 10 Helpful Unless you were specifically instructed to add pictures, then no, you should not include pictures in your term paper. Ordinarily, you would write the introduction and the whole paper first, and the last thing to do is write an abstract. Make an outline before you even start writing, featuring your main points, and then sub-points related to those main points.
Then plan out your paragraphs, figuring out which points you want to make first, second, and so on. You can even have someone else read through your paper and tell you if they think you should move or change anything. Not Helpful 0 Helpful 2. How do I write term paper about a mathematics topic? Answer this question Flag as How do I write a term paper related to physics?
Do you need to include dedication, acknowledgements and table of contents in your term paper? How do I write a term paper work on the causes of road deterioration and possible remedies?
How do I write a term paper on internet browsing must have restrictions? Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered.
Already answered Not a question Bad question Other. Quick Summary If you need to write a term paper, choose your topic, then start researching that topic. Did this summary help you? Tips Give yourself enough time to complete the term paper.
It is suggested that the minimum time requirements are as follows: At least 2 hours for pages. At least 4 hours for pages. At least 6 hours for pages. The best essays are like grass court tennis — the argument should flow in a "rally" style, building persuasively to the conclusion. If you get stuck, consider giving the prof a visit. Warnings If you use outside sources and do not credit those sources, you have cheated plagiarized.
You will fail and possibly get kicked out of school. Put the effort in now, so that the rest of your knowledge gaining grows easier later.
Remember that term paper writing is an important part of your academic career. Be sure to include title page, table of contents, body of the paper and reference page.
Never hand in a paper written for one subject to another subject. Do not forget to check the final draft for mistakes and omissions. These irk markers to the point of reducing your overall marks if there are enough errors. Article Info Featured Article Categories: Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 1,, times.
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A good term paper takes more than a little research. It requires planning, time management and excellent writing skills. With the right preparation, your essay will land you excellent marks. Download: Term Paper Example. How to Write a Proposal. Before researching and writing, you should know what a term paper proposal is. Basically, you should be able to defend your topic to your instructor through this proposal. This proposal must be handed in and .
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